Key parameters that impact the buildability construction of a site in Bengaluru

26th June 2024


Development Potential: Definition & Usage

  • Understanding the development potential of the land is crucial for evaluating Property Valuation, determining the appropriate product type and product positioning, and understanding the necessary approvals required prior to construction.
  • In Bengaluru Metropolitan Region (BMR), the development potential of land is dependent mainly on the (1) developable extent of the land & (ii) permissible Floor Area Ratio (FAR).
    Development Potential of the site* or Permissible Built-up Area (BUA) = Developable Extent of land x Permissible FAR
    * Development Potential of the site helps us understand the buildability of the site. Buildability can be equal or less than the development potential of the site.

Key parameters that impact buildability construction of a site

1. Developable Extent of Land

  • The developable extent of the property is the land area which as per revenue records is suitable for development.
  • To assess the developable potential, the first step is to understand the developable extent of land as per revenue records and determine the presence of A-Kharab1 & B-Kharab2.
  • A-Kharab lands are considered suitable for the development and B-Kharab lands are not suitable for any development neither FAR on B-Kharab portion can be availed.
    [Developable extent of Land = Total land area – Extent of B-Kharab]

2. Permissible Floor Area Ratio (FAR)

  • FAR is used to calculate the built-up area as well as the number of floors that can be constructed on land. Higher FAR indicates that construction is more dense and lower FAR indicates sparse development.
  • FAR in the BMR varies on six primary parameters – jurisdiction, zoning, approach road width, property frontage on the approach road, extent of site and amalgamation of plots. However, the achievable FAR varies on multiple geographical and man-made constraints.
  • The following are the key factors to determine the achievable FAR of the property.

    I. Jurisdiction

    • The Bengaluru Metropolitan Region (BMR) encompasses several jurisdictions with distinct Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) or Master plan which outlines the development regulations for that specific jurisdiction.
    • Additionally, these authorities are responsible for issuing and validating development approvals, adhering to its own CDP or Master plan.
      • Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagar Palike (BBMP) and Bangalore Development Authority (BDA): BBMP governs the core areas of Bengaluru city and BDA oversees planned development in areas beyond BBMP limits & within BDA limits. Applicable for seeking approvals for building plan, development plan & layout plan approvals, land conversions and occupancy certificate.
      • Local Planning Authorities (LPAs) and Bengaluru Metropolitan Region Development Authority (BMRDA): Pertains to the property located within BMRDA limits and outside of BDA which include 12 Local Planning Authorities.
      • Karnataka Industrial Areas Development Board (KIADB): Only applies to the land that is allotted by KIADB irrespective of its macro-jurisdiction.

    II. Development Type

    • The BDA has divided the city into different zones such as residential, commercial, industrial, public utility zones and mutation corridors, each with specific land-use regulations that dictate permissible uses, FAR, Setbacks from road, open space & parking requirements.
    • Permissible FAR for various Uses:
      • Plotted Developments: All LPAs in Bangalore Metropolitan Region allow development on 55% of the land parcel, except Satellite Town Ring Road Planning Authority (STRRPA) which permits development upto 50% of land. The remaining portion of land goes to parks, roads and common areas which has to be relinquished to the local authorities.
      • Group Housing: The maximum permissible FAR varies between 1.75 times to 3.25 times for the plot size below 20,000 SqM and between 2.00 to 3.25 for plots size beyond 20,000 SqM. To avail the benefit of higher FAR for group housing scheme, the approach road width in case of BMRDA & BMICAPA should be 12 M or more.
      • Commercial: Permissible FAR for commercial development ranges from 1.50 to 3.25 times depending upon the width of adjacent road for the land upto 12,000 SqM.
      • Warehouses: For plots above 1,000 SqM size, maximum permissible FAR is 1 on industrial lands with a ground coverage up to 45% or 50% basis the size the plot size. An additional 30% FAR is permissible for the construction of the mezzanine floor without purchase of additional FAR.
      • Re-development schemes: by Karnataka Slum Clearance Board or Karnataka Housing Board, BBMP/BDA within BDA limits, maximum permissible FAR is 3.0.
    • The Volume – III, Zoning Regulations, Revised Master Plan, 2015, Bangalore, 2007 provides detailed understanding of regulations applicable for development within BDA limits. Refer respective Master Plans or CDPs for other 12 LPAs.

    III. Extent of the Site

    • The size of the land also impacts in determining the extent of development in BMR. As per the zoning regulations in BDA, the achievable FAR varies according to the extent of land, mainly differs for the sites above or below 20,000 SqM (5-acres).
    • In the case where land area exceeds 20,000 SqM, 5% of the land area has to be relinquished for Civic Amenities; FAR on the 5% of the land area cannot be availed.

    IV. Approach Road Width

    • The permissible FAR is determined by the existing width of approach road, not the proposed width. In BMR, the local authorities, mainly BDA, have defined varying FAR values based on the width of the existing abutting road.
    • For the residential development project in Bangalore, the FAR varies between 1.75 to 3.25, determined by the width of the approach road.

    V. Property Frontage

    • For properties located on Mutation Corridors within the BDA jurisdiction; to avail the permissible FAR benefits (of 3.25), the property frontage must be a minimum of 12 M along the mutation corridor.

    VI. Amalgamation of Plots

    • The BDA also provides the benefits of additional Floor Area Ratio (FAR) in case of merging two or more plots into one property, as an incentive to encourage redevelopment in old/core areas of Bangalore.
    • These 'amalgamation plots' qualify for an additional FAR of 0.25 or 0.5 on top of the existing permissible FAR.

    VII. Man-made & Geographical Constrains

    • Man-made and geographical constrains poses restrictions on the achieving the permissible FAR through either height restrictions or ground coverage due to either its proximity or its availability on the subject land.
    • Along with the regulatory approvals requirement from the BDA & fire department, these constraints may require additional approvals from other authorities.
    • Key Man-made Constrains that impact the development potential of the site include:
      • Airport: In BDA, clearance from Airport Authority of India (AAI) is mandatory if the site falls within 10 KM radius from any nearest airport or aerodrome and has a building height more than 15 M.
      • Defense: In case the outer boundary of the site is located within 10M/100M/500M from defense land, NOC from Defense is required. It may impact the building height.
      • High-tension line: A No Development Zone – minimum of 4.5 M up to 50 M (depending upon the installation size of HT Line) for from the center of HT line on both the sides must be earmarked in case of a presence of HT Lines in the property. While the FAR for the subject land can be considered, achieving the FAR has to be assessed basis the height restrictions and optimum building footprint.
      • Presence of a monument: In case the plot is located within a 500-meter radius of any designated monument, defined by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the development will be subject to height restrictions.
      • National Highways: A No Development Zone of 40 M from the median of the highway is applicable for the site abutting a National Highway.
      • Railways: 30 M from the railway track is earmarked as No Development Zone.
      • Apart from these, gas pipelines, irrigation channels, metro rail, may restrict the development after with a buffer or at a height.
    • Key Geographical Constrains that impact the development potential of land:
      • Lake: Buffer of 30 M from the edge of the lake to be earmarked as No Development zone.
      • Nala: In BDA, a 15 M, 25 M & 50 M of no development zone must be earmarked from the center of Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Nalas respectively; in BMRDA, buffer of 9 M has to be provided for primary drain and buffer of 3 M for Secondary & Tertiary drains respectively.
      • Development may also be affected by the presence of mountains, valleys, national forests, or sand dunes.
  • Other than these factors, provisions for Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) and Premium FAR may also impact the development potential of land by adding the additional FAR into the existing permissible FAR.
  • TDR which means the Development Right (DR) given in the form of ‘Notional Land’ to an owner, which can be sold or disposed or utilized elsewhere in the Local Planning Area, after factorizing the Market Value of the Originating Plot and the Receiving plot.
  • The Premium FAR over and above the ordinarily permissible F.A.R could be purchased against a fee as per the notification released by the Government of Karnataka on 16th June 2021. However, clarification on the details of Premium FAR is still awaited.

Buildability of a site is crucial as the entire project planning, costs, and revenues are subject to it. Meraqi’s Handboook Government Regulations, Regulatory Requisites and Building Plan Approval Process for Real Estate Developments in Bengaluru covers applicable regulatory requisites required during the entire lifecycle of a real-estate project (pre-construction, construction & post completion) in Bengaluru. The handbook also includes the standard regulatory practices and procedures involved in developing different real estate projects including residential, commercial, institution, and warehouse developments in Bengaluru.

  • 1 A – Kharab: These parcels are unfit for agricultural purposes but can be used for development purposes. A-Kharab land can be converted for Non-Agricultural purpose.
  • 2 B - Kharab: These are non-cultivable as well as non-developable extent of land. Includes physical constraints due to natural features (hills, valleys, rocky structures), infrastructure (foot paths, drains, power lines), or environmentally protected green zones. The area under Nala after re-alignment is also marked as B-Kharab.

About the Author
Aeshvry Rajaura
Aeshvry Rajaura

Articles written by Real Estate Experts are directly delivered to your inbox.

Subscribe Today